Essential Oils Used in Cosmetics and Perfumes

Author: Nicodemus Amboye
Category: Biological Sciences
Published on: 2021-05-18 10:18:20   Updated On: February-27-2022 21:06:05

Jasmine essential oil

Jasmine essential oil is derived from a plant species called Jasminum officinale (L). It has the following features:

Features Description
Location in the plant Flowers
Colour of the oil Dark, orange-brown
Nature of Aroma Highly intense, rich, sweet, floral odour
Primary components of the oil Benzyl benzoate, benzyl alcohol, cis-jasmone, benzyl acetate, farnesol, phytols, methyl jasmonate, methyl anthranilate, nerol, phytols, geraniol, linalyl acetate, terpineol, eugenol, terpineol

Source: Pitman (2004)

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Read Essential oils used in cosmetics and perfumes - part one 

 

Juniper essential oil

Juniper essential oil is derived from a plant species called Juniper communis L. It has the following features:

Features Description
Location in the plant Ripe berries
Colour of the oil Colourless or pale yellow-green
Nature of Aroma Fresh terebinth or turpentine-like/conifer-like aroma
Primary components of the oil β-pipene, β-caryophyllene, β-myrcene, α-pipene, α-phellandrene, terpinen-4-ol, sabinene, limonene, bornyl acetate

Source: Majewska et al. (2017)

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Laurel essential oil

Laurel essential oil is derived from a plant species called Laurus nobilis L. It has the following features:

Features Description
Location in the plant Leaves
Colour of the oil Yellow
Nature of Aroma Aromatic, spicy
Primary components of the oil Eugenol, methyl eugenol, sabinene, 1,8-Cineole, linalool, α-pinene, α-terpinyl acetate

Source: Alejo-Armijo et al. (2017)

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Lavender essential oil

Lavender essential oil is derived from a plant species called Lavandula angustifolia Mill. It has the following features:

Features Description
Location in the plant Flowering tops
Colour of the oil Colourless to pale yellow
Nature of Aroma Sweet floral aroma
Primary components of the oil Limonene, linalool, camphor, 1,8-cineole, terpinene-4-ol, linalyl acetate

Source: Sarkic and Stephen (2018)

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Lemon essential oil

Lemon essential oil is derived from a plant species called Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck. It has the following features:

Features Description
Location in the plant Peel
Colour of the oil Colourless to pale yellow
Nature of Aroma Fresh lemon peel
Primary components of the oil α-pinene, α-terpineol, α-phellandrene, α-thujene, terpineol-4, nonanal, trans-caryophyllene, trans-α-bergamotene, α-terpinene, cis-sabinene-hydrate, β-pinene, β-bisabolene, γ-terpinene, terpinolene, geranial, geraniol, limonene, sabinene, neral, citronellal, camphene, p-cymene, octyl aldehyde, neryl acetate

Source: Aguilar-Hernandez et al. (2020)

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Lemongrass essential oil

Lemongrass essential oil is derived from a plant species called Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. It has the following features:

Features Description
Location in the plant Grass leaf
Colour of the oil Yellow or pale sherry-coloured
Nature of Aroma Intense sweet lemony, reminiscent of lemon drops
Primary components of the oil Geraniol, methyl heptenone, farnesol, linalool, citronellol, dipentene, citral, esters, acids, dipentene, nerol, myrcene, sesquiterpenes

Source: Pitman (2004)

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Lime essential oil

Lime essential oil is derived from a plant species called Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle. It has the following features:

Features Description
Location in the plant Peel
Colour of the oil Colourless to greenish-yellow
Nature of Aroma Mild citrus, floral
Primary components of the oil γ-terpinene, citral, β-pinene, limonene

Source:  Jain et al. (2020)

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Litsea essential oil

Litsea essential oil is derived from a plant species called Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers. It has the following features:

Features Description
Location in the plant Fruits
Colour of the oil Pale yellow
Nature of Aroma An intense lemon-like, spicy aroma
Primary components of the oil d-limonene, citral (neral and geranial)

Source: Si et al. (2012)

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Myrrh essential oil

Myrrh essential oil is derived from a plant species called Commiphora myrrha (Nees.) Engl. It has the following features:

Features Description
Location in the plant Gum
Colour of the oil Yellow to red-brown
Nature of Aroma Pleasant balsamic, camphor-like, musty, incense-like
Primary components of the oil Furanodiene, curzerene, lindestrene, furanoeudesma-1,3-diene, β-elemene

Source: de Groot (2016)

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Neroli/bitter orange essential oil

Neroli/bitter orange essential oil is derived from a plant species called Citrus aurantium var. amara L. It has the following features:

Features Description
Location in the plant Flowers
Colour of the oil Pale yellow to coffee brown
Nature of Aroma Sweet, fresh and floral odour
Primary components of the oil Nerol, nerolidol, linalool, sabinene, limonene, linalyl acetate, α-terpineol, α-pinene, β-pinene

Source: Sarkic and Stappen (2018)

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Nutmeg essential oil

Nutmeg essential oil is derived from a plant species called Myristica fragrans Houtt. It has the following features:

Features Description
Location in the plant Seeds
Colour of the oil Pale yellow to colourless
Nature of Aroma Spicy, sweet, woody
Primary components of the oil Limonene, sabinene, safrol, myristicin, elimicin, eugenol, α-pinene, β-pinene

Source: Periasamy et al. (2016)

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Palmarosa essential oil

Palmarosa essential oil is derived from a plant species called Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) W. Watson. It has the following features:

Features Description
Location in the plant Leaves
Colour of the oil Yellow
Nature of Aroma Fresh rose-like
Primary components of the oil Geraniol, farnesol, geranyl hexanoate, geranyl  isobutyrate, geranyl acetate, α-terpineol, β-caryophyllene, linalool, myrcene

Source: Rao et al. (2010)

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Patchouli essential oil

Patchouli essential oil is derived from a plant species called Pogostemon cablin (Blanco.) Benth. It has the following features:

Features Description
Location in the plant Leaves
Colour of the oil Yellow to red-brown
Nature of Aroma Earthy, woody and camphoraceous
Primary components of the oil Caryophyllene oxide, aciphyllene, germacrene D, α-patchoulene, α-humulene, α-bulnesene, α-guaiene, seychellene, cycloseychellene, β-caryophyllene, β-elemene, β-patchoulene, norpatchoulenol, patchoulol, pogostol, pogostone, aciphyllene, limonene

Source: Van Beek T.A., Joulain D. (2018).

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Peppermint essential oil

Peppermint essential oil is derived from a plant species called Mentha piperita (L.). It has the following features:

Features Description
Location in the plant Aerial parts
Colour of the oil Almost colourless to pale green-yellow
Nature of Aroma Characteristic of mint, sweet, menthol-like
Primary components of the oil Menthofuran, menthone, menthol, isomenthone, menthyl acetate, pulegone, limonene, trans-sabinene hydrate, 3-octanal,1,8-cineole, β-caryophyllene

Source: Pitman (2004)

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Rose essential oil

Rose essential oil is derived from a plant species called Rosa damascena Mill. It has the following features:

Features Description
Location in the plant Flowers
Colour of the oil Yellow to yellow-green
Nature of Aroma Sweet, floral, rosaceous
Primary components of the oil Geraniol, heneicosane, nonadecane, nerol, citronellol

Source: Atanasova et al. (2016)

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Rosemary essential oil

Rosemary essential oil is derived from a plant species called Rosmarinus officinalis L. It has the following features:

Features Description
Location in the plant Leaves
Colour of the oil Colourless to pale yellow
Nature of Aroma Strong, warm, woody, balsamic aroma
Primary components of the oil Camphene, β-pinene, α-pinene, β-myrcene, borneol, bornyl acetate, limonene, eucalyptol, camphor

Source: Sarkic and Stappen (2018)

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Rosewood essential oil

Rosewood essential oil is derived from a plant species called Aniba rosaeodora Ducke. It has the following features:

Features Description
Location in the plant Wood/leaves
Colour of the oil Pale yellow
Nature of Aroma Floral, sweet, woody, and citric
Primary components of the oil α-selinene, α-copaene, α-terpineol, α-pinene, limonene, spathulenol, benzyl benzoate, caryophyllene oxide, linalool, cis-linalool oxide (furanoid), trans-linalool oxide (furanoid), trans-linalool oxide (pyranoid), β-pinene

Source: Maia and Mourao (2016)

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Sandalwood essential oil

Sandalwood essential oil is derived from a plant species called Santalum album L. It has the following features:

Features Description
Location in the plant Heartwood
Colour of the oil Yellow to light brown
Nature of Aroma Sweet woody
Primary components of the oil Santalol (cis-α-santalol and cis-β-santalol)

Source: Howes et al. (2004)

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Star anise essential oil

Star anise essential oil is derived from a plant species called Illicium verum  Hook.f. It has the following features:

Features Description
Location in the plant Fruit
Colour of the oil Pale yellow
Nature of Aroma Warm, spicy, extremely sweet, licorice-like scent
Primary components of the oil Trans-anethole

Source: Lawless (2013)

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Sweet orange essential oil

Sweet orange essential oil is derived from a plant species called Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck. It has the following features:

Features Description
Location in the plant Peel
Colour of the oil Yellow to red-brown
Nature of Aroma Characteristic, orange peel oduor
Primary components of the oil β-sinensal, β-pinene, α-pinene, neral, limonene, sabinene, linalool, valencene, geranial, n-nonanal, n-decanal, n-octanal, myrcene

Source: ISO 3140: 2019 (E) Essential Oil of Sweet Orange Expressed (Citrus sinensis L.). Available online: https://www.sis.se/api/document/preview/80011724/

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Tangerine essential oil

Tangerine essential oil is derived from a plant species called Citrus reticulata Blanco. It has the following features:

Features Description
Location in the plant Peel
Colour of the oil Dark orange to red-orange or brown-orange
Nature of Aroma Orange-like
Primary components of the oil Terpinolene, α-thujene, α-pinene, γ-terpinene, limonene, myrcene, p-cymene

Source: Burnett et al. (2019)

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Tea tree essential oil

Tea tree essential oil is derived from a plant species called Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden and Betche) Cheel. It has the following features:

Features Description
Location in the plant Leaves
Colour of the oil Colourless to pale yellow
Nature of Aroma Intensive aromatic fresh Camphoraceous odour
Primary components of the oil α-terpinene, γ-terpinene, α-terpineol, viridiflorol, globulol,  sabinene, Terpinen-4-ol, terpinolene, 1,8-cineole, p-cymene, aromadendrene, limonene, viridiflorene

Source: Sarkic and Stappen (2018)

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Turpentine essential oil

Turpentine essential oil is derived from a plant species called Pinus massoniana Lamp. It has the following features:

Features Description
Location in the plant Gum resin
Colour of the oil Colourless
Nature of Aroma Characteristic of gum turpentine
Primary components of the oil Limonene, caryophyllene oxide, β-caryophyllene, β-pinene, α-pinene, camphene, longifolene, p-cymene, myrcene

Source: ISO 21389 2004(E), Oil of Gum Turpentine (Pinus massoniana Lamb. Available online: https://cdn.standards.iteh.ai/samples/35861/a65f5ee52cc5413197cbc3e49c675fda/ISO-21389-2004.pdf.[Reflist]

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Vetiver essential oil

Vetiver essential oil is derived from a plant species called Vetiveria zizonioides (Linn.) Nash. It has the following features:

Features Description
Location in the plant Roots
Colour of the oil Pale-yellow to dark brown, olive or amber
Nature of Aroma Deep, smoky, earthy, and woody with a sweet persistent undertone
Primary components of the oil Khusimone, Khusimol, khusian-2-ol, α-vetivone

Source: Burger et al. (2017)

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Ylang ylang essential oil

Ylang ylang essential oil is derived from a plant species called Cananga odorata (Hook. F. and Thoms) It has the following features:

Features Description
Location in the plant Flowers
Colour of the oil Pale yellow to dark yellow
Nature of Aroma Characteristic, floral, recalling jasmine
Primary components of the oil Linalool, geranyl acetate, geraniol, prenyl acetate, benzyl acetate, benzyl salicylate, (E)-cinnamyl acetate, germacrene-D, (E,E)-farnesyl acetate, (E,E)-farnesol, α-farnesene, methyl benzoate, p-cresyl methyl ether

Source: ISO3063:2004(E)

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Cited sources:

Aguilar-Hernandez, M.G., Sanchez-Bravo, P., Hernandez, F., Carbonell-Barrachina, A.A., Pastor-Perez, J.J., Legua, P. (2020). Determination of the volatile profile of lemon peel oils as affected by rootstock. Foods, 9, 241.

Alejo-Armijo A., Altarejos, J. and Salido, S. (2017). Phytochemicals and biological activities of Laurel tree (Laurus nobilis). Natural Products Communications, 12, 743-757.

Atanasova, T., Kakalova,, M., Stefanof, L., Petkova, M., Stoyanova, A., Damyanova, S., Desyk, M. (2016). Chemical composition of essential oil from Rosa damascene Mill., growing in new region of Bulgaria. Ukranian Food Journal, 5(3),492-498.

Burger, P., Landreau, A., Watson, M., Janci, L., Cassica, V, Kempf, M., Azoulay, S., and Fernandez, X. (2017). Vetiver Essential Oil in Cosmetics: What is New? Essential Oil in Cosmetics: What Is New? Medicines. 4(2),41.

Burnett, C.L., Fiume, M.M., Bergfeld, W.F., Belsito, D.V., Hill, R.A., Klaassen, C.D., Liebler, D.C., Marks, J.G., Jr, Shank, R.C., Slaga, T.J., Snyder, P.W., Gill, L.J., Heldreth, B. (2019). Review safety assessment of citrus-derived peel oils as used in cosmetics. International Journal of Toxicology, 38(2), 33-59.

De Groot, A.C.and Schmidt, E. (2016). Essential oils, part IV: Contact allergy. Dermatitis. 27(4), 170-175.

Howes, M.J.R., Simmonds, M.S., Kite, G.C. (2004). Evaluation of the quality of sandalwood essential oils by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography, 1028, 307-312.

Jain, S., Arora, P., Popli, H. (2020). A comprehensive review on Citrus aurantifolia essential oil: its phytochemistry and pharmacological aspects. Brazilian Journal of Natural Sciences, 3(334).

Lawless, J. (2013). The Encyclopaedia of Essential Oils: The Complete Guide to the Use of Aromatic oils in Aromatherapy, Herbalism, Health, and Well Being. Conari Press; San Francisco, CA, USA.

Maia, J.G.S., Mourao, R.H.V. (2016). Essential Oils in Food Preservation, Flavor and Safety. Elsevier; Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Amazon Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke) Oils; 193-201.

Majewska, E., Kozlowska, M., Kowalska, D., Gruczynska, E. Characterization of the essential oil from cone-berries of Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae). Herba Polonica, 63(3), 48-55.

Periasamy, G., Karim, A., Gibrelibanos, M., Gibremedhin, G. Essential oils in food preservation, flavour and safety. Elsevier; Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) oils; 607-616.

Pitman, V. (2004). Aromatherapy: A Practical Approach. Nelson Thornes; Cheltenham, UK:2004.

Rao, B.R.R., Rajput, D.K., Patel, R.P. and Purnanand, S. (2010). Essential oil yield and chemical composition changes during leaf ontogeny of Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini var motia). Natural Products Communications, 5, 1947-1950.

Sarkic, A. and Stappen, I. (2018). Essential oils and their single compounds in cosmetics – A critical review. Cosmetics, 5, 11.

Si, L., Chen, Y., Han, X., Zhan, Z., Tian, S., Cui, Q., Wang, Y. (2012). Chemical composition of essential oils of Litsea cubeba harvested from its distribution areas in China. Molecules, 17, 7057-7066.

About the Author

Nicodemus is an MBA (strategic management) graduate of Egerton University (Kenya). He also holds a BSc degree in botany, zoology and chemistry, from the University of Nairobi (Kenya). He is proficient in the following computer programming technologies - HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript, Bootstrap, PHP, MySQLi and Python. He is an experienced researcher and writer in the fields of business management, information technology, biological sciences, and social sciences. He enjoys developing computer programs and web applications that address diverse user needs.

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